FINAL REVIEW

PSYCHOLOGY FINAL EXAM – REVIEW

Chapter 1

1. Define psychology.

2. What are the main goals of psychology?

3. What do the vast majority of psychologists study?

Chapter 2

4. What is a hypothesis?

Chapter 3

5. What did Jean Piaget’s research show about intelligence?

6. What is object permanence?

7. According to Piaget, what is the principle of conservation?

8. According to Erikson, how would praise affect a child in the autonomy v. shame and doubt stage?

9. According to Kohlberg, what are the characteristics of the lowest stage of moral development?

Chapter 4

10. What are the characteristics of adolescent thought and behavior according to Piaget?

11. What are the characteristics of depressed teens?

Chapter 5

12. Identify the stages of dying, in order, as developed by Elizabeth Kubler-Ross.

13. How will a middle age man develop generativity according to Erikson?

Chapter 6

14. What are the roles of the nervous system and endocrine system in information processing?

15. Identify the characteristics of each side of the nature-nurture debate.

16. What are the characteristics of identical twins?

Chapter 7

17. According to Freud, what is the importance of dreams?

18. What are the characteristics of REM sleep?

19. Define hallucinations, illusions, delusions, and daydreams.

20. What are the characteristics of hypnosis?

21. Define the characteristics of a stage of sleep.

22. Identify theories of the purpose and cause of dreams.

Chapter 8

23. What is an absolute threshold?

24. Identify the guiding principles of Gestalt psychology.

25. Being able to hear one person’s voice in a noisy room is an example of what type of perception?

26. What are the characteristics of color deficiency?

Chapter 9

27. In classical conditioning, how would you get the best response from a conditioned stimulus?

28. Describe Ivan Pavlov’s experiment and his findings.

29. Define punishment and its role in operant conditioning.

30. Define operant conditioning.

31. What is the difference between stimulus discrimination and stimulus generalization?

32. What does an unconditioned stimulus elicit?

33. What causes a conditioned response to occur?

34. How does classical conditioning help people overcome fears?

35. Cite examples of primary reinforcers, secondary reinforcers, token economies, response chains.

36. Describe the “Little Albert” experiment and what it demonstrated about conditioning.

37. Cite examples of the different schedules of reinforcement.

38. Define learn helplessness and its role in conditioning.

39. Compare and contrast latent learning and observational learning.

Chapter 10

40. What is eidetic memory?

41. What is interference and how does it influence our ability to remember?

42. What are the characteristics of short term memory?

43. What is ability to identify a sound that you have heard before?

44. What are the three processes of memory?

45. Cite examples of mnemonic devices.

46. What are the characteristics of procedural memory?

47. What factors will cause a person to forget?

48. Identify the three types of memory.

Chapter 11

49. Define insight.

50. Identify the types of thinking.

51. Define image, concept, and rule.

52. Define thinking.

53. Define prototype and concept.

54. What is metacognition?

55. What are the characteristics of telegraphic speech?

Chapter 12

56. Describe the experiment conducted by Harry Harlow and what it demonstrated.

57. Who developed the hierarchy of needs?

58. What is self actualization and how is it fulfilled?

59. What do psychological studies on obese individuals show?

60. What is homeostasis?

61. What is the cause of differences in emotional expressions in various cultures?

Chapter 14

62. According to Freud, what is the role of the id, ego, and superego in person tempted to steal?

63. According to Freud, what are repression and projection?

64. According to Freud, what are displacement and sublimation?

65. According to Freud, what are regression and denial?

66. According to Freud, what is reaction formation?

67. Rewards and punishments are associated with what type of psychology?

68. What area of psychology is associated with Abraham Maslow?

69. What are the differences between introverts and extroverts?

70. According to Freud, what are the characteristics of personality?

71. According to Freud, what is the importance of the unconscious to personality?

72. What are defense mechanisms and what is their purpose?

73. B.F. Skinner is associated with what area of psychology?

74. Whose theory includes the idea of the self-actualized person?

75. What are archetypes and what role do they play in personality development?

76. According to Jung, what is the personal unconscious?

77. According to Freud, what part of the mind operates by the pleasure principle?

78. According to Adler, what motivates people?

79. What is a fixation and how does a fixation develop?

80. What factors influence the sociocutural perspective of psychology?

81. What is the criticism of trait theory?

82. According to Carl Rogers, how does one achieve congruence?

Chapter 16

83. Define obsession and compulsion.

84. What is the extreme fear of public places?

85. Identify the characteristics of a dissociative reaction.

86. What are the characteristics of a conversion reaction?

87. Identify the symptoms of bipolar disorder.

88. Define phobia.

89. Identify the types of schizophrenia and the characteristics of each.

90. According to Freud, what would cause an anxiety disorder?

91. What are the causes of dissociative amnesia

92. What are the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder?

93. What is a Freudian explanation for dissociative disorders?

94. Describe the characteristics of a conversion disorder.

95. What type of disorder is hypochondriasis?

96. What are the characteristics of disorganized schizophrenia?

97. What are the symptoms of catatonic schizophrenia?

98. Distrustfulness and suspicion are symptoms of which personality disorder?

99. Identify the characteristics of major depression.

100.Cite the symptoms of schizoid personality disorder.

Essay

  • Think of theories and new ideas that you have learned this semester that you can relate to situations you have observed in the real world.
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